Economics Minor

Economics Minor


The Economics Minor is intended for students with a strong interest in rigorous economics who are majoring in related fields. For instance, this minor should be attractive for students preparing for an MBA program, preparing for Law School, preparing for Foreign Service, or students who are interested in quantitative data analysis in the social sciences.


The Economics Minor consists of six courses, none of which may be taken as pass/fail. The six courses include three required courses and three electives.

(All Three Courses are Required)

  • ECON 1: Introduction to Microeconomics

  • ECON 2: Introduction to Macroeconomics

  • ECON 101: Microeconomic Theory. Prerequisites: ECON 1, ECON 2, MATH 104, MATH 114 or 115.

(Choose 3 courses):

You can choose from a wide range of course offerings, subject to the constraint that one of the three courses needs to be a 200-level course.

Please note: 200-level courses require some or all of the 100-level courses as prerequisites. Moreover, these courses require two semesters of calculus. Courses with two-digit numbers only require ECON 1 and possibly ECON 2 as prerequisites. For details, please see Course Information.

The following categorization of courses is indicative of particular specializations that could be pursed within the minor:

Econometrics and Statistics

  • ECON 103: Statistics for Economists (prerequisite for Econometrics)

  • ECON 104: Introduction to Econometrics (prerequisite for other 200-level econometric courses)

  • ECON 221: Time Series Econometrics

  • ECON 222: Microeconometrics

Empirical Microeconomics

  • ECON 14: American Capitalism

  • ECON 30: Public Policy Analysis

  • ECON 33: Labor Economics

  • ECON 35: Industrial Organization

  • ECON 36: Law and Economics

  • ECON 39: Economics and Financing of Health Care Delivery

  • ECON 231: Public Finance

  • ECON 232: Political Economy

  • ECON 233: Labor Economics

  • ECON 234: Law and Economics

  • ECON 235: Industrial Organization

  • ECON 236: Health Economics

  • ECON 237: Urban Fiscal Policy

Microeconomics/Game Theory

  • ECON 13: Strategic Reasoning

  • ECON 211: Social Choice Theory

  • ECON 212: Game Theory

  • ECON 245: Math for Economists

  • ECON 260: Decision Making

  • ECON 262: Market Design


  • ECON 102: Macroeconomic Theory (prerequisite for other 200-level macro courses)

  • ECON 210: Economics of Family

  • ECON 241: Economic Growth

  • ECON 242: Topics in Macroeconomics

  • ECON 243: Monetary and Fiscal Policies

  • ECON 246: Money and Banking

  • ECON 244: Macro-Modelling

International Economics and Development

  • ECON 24: Development Economics

  • ECON 50: International Economics

  • ECON 251: International Trade

  • ECON 252: International Finance

  • ECON 262: Market Design

  • The following combinations of courses are incompatible: ECON 30 and 231; ECON 33 and 233; ECON 35 and 235; ECON 36 and 234; ECON 50 and either ECON 251 or 252.

  • Students are required to take four of the six economics courses in residence at the University of Pennsylvania. All courses taken in residence must be taken within the Economics Department. No substitutions for courses from other departments will be accepted.

  • Students must have a GPA of 2.0 in the Economics Minor in order to graduate with a minor in Economics.

  • Students who have declared an Economics Major, a Mathematical Economics Major, or an Economic Policy Minor cannot receive an Economics Minor.

  • Independent Studies: At most, one independent study (Econ 199) can be counted toward the minor. It does not count as a 200-level course.

  • Wharton students who have taken ECON 10 instead of ECON 1 and 2 need to take one additional 200-level ECON course to satisfy the requirements of the minor.

  • Wharton students may replace the required ECON 101 course by BEPP 250 HONORS. The regular BEPP 250 course does not count as a substitute for ECON 101.

  • Students who have received ECON 1 credit and an ECON 2 waiver for a single semester introductory micro/macro course need to take an additional 0xx (or higher) level ECON course to complete the minor. 

  • Starting with students entering Penn in the Fall of 2017, we will no longer convert advanced placement waivers (AP, IB, and A-Level) for ECON 1 or ECON 2 into course credits upon completion of the ECON minor, the EPOL minor, the ECON major, or the MATH-ECON major. However, the waiver can be used to satisfy prerequisites for higher-level economics courses.
    A student with an advanced placement waiver (AP, IB, and A-Level) in ECON 1 (or ECON 2) has two options: 
    (i) Take ECON 1 (or ECON 2) at Penn and count it toward the minor.
    (ii) Take an additional ECON course to replace ECON 1 (or ECON 2). 
    Students who have waivers for both ECON 1 and ECON 2 need to take two additional ECON courses.