Equilibrium Labor Market Search and Health Insurance Reform, Third Version
We present and empirically implement an equilibrium labor market search model where risk averse workers facing medical expenditure shocks are matched with ﬁrms making health insurance coverage decisions. Our model delivers a rich set of predictions that can account for a wide variety of phenomenon observed in the data including the correlations among ﬁrm sizes, wages, employer-sponsored health insurance oﬀering rates, turnover rates and workers’ health compositions. We estimate our model by Generalized Method of Moments using a combination of micro datasets including the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the Kaiser Family Employer Health Insurance Beneﬁts Survey. We use our estimated model to evaluate the equilibrium impact of the 2010 Aﬀordable Care Act (ACA) and compare it with other health care reform proposals. We also use the estimates of the early impact of the ACA as a model validation. We ﬁnd that the full implementation of the ACA would reduce the uninsured rate among the workers in our estimation sample from about 21.3% in the pre-ACA benchmark economy to 6.6%. We also ﬁnd that income-based premium subsidies for health insurance purchases from the exchange play an important role for the sustainability of the ACA; without the premium subsidies, the uninsured rate would be around 15.8%. In contrast, as long as premium subsidies and health insurance exchanges with community ratings stay intact, ACA without the individual mandate, or without the employer mandate, or without both mandates, could still succeed in reducing the uninsured rates to 11.4%, 7.5% and 12.9% respectively.